Elk Run: Golf Course to Farm

In the 1990’s the rage in real estate development was both stand alone and master planned community golf course construction. The Golf Club at Newcastle repurposed an old construction landfill with 36 links, a stunning club house, and outstanding views to Puget Sound and beyond. A Jack Nicklaus Signature Golf Course was built at Snoqualmie Ridge a new plateau neighborhood on former Weyerhaeuser timber lands above downtown Snoqualmie, WA. Now almost built-out, Snoqualmie Ridge is a mixed-use community with new a public school, a commercial downtown, housing for a variety of ages and incomes, a business park, and the golf course as its featured recreational opportunity. Trilogy at Redmond Ridge converted former timberlands to a golf course and residential development serving a 55+ senior community. As a Professional Civil Engineer, during this golf link construction surge, I reviewed engineering design drawings, Integrated Pest Management Plans, environmental documents, and wrote discretionary land use permits for these three King County golf courses.

Trilogy at Redmond Ridge Golf Course

Golf courses as a recreational amenity were a profitable and desirable solution to keep open space and add real estate value. At its peak, real estate developers were rewarded a ten to 25% premium for new homes built next to the golf green compared to homes off links (Ed McMahon, Senior Fellow, Urban Land Institute). Homeowners coveted the views and green space. Golfing was in its prime! I was riding the wave in my consulting business with the developers to build courses for what seemed like an ever-expanding golf population.

Now 25 years later, golf’s popularity has changed dramatically. By 2013, there were 72 public and private golf courses in the Seattle metropolitan area (Golf Link, 2013). For the decade preceding 2013, for every new course being opened, ten courses were closed. (National Golf Foundation, 2013). At the same time as the number of golf courses has decreased there is an ever-shrinking pool of golfers. Sixty-one percent (61%) of the golf players, defined as someone that only plays one round of links in a 12-month period, are 50 years and older. Only 17% of the golfers are under 40 years old. (October 2016, Golf Player Demographic Statistics–Statistics Brain) Golfing is on a downward trend. Granted 29 million golf players is still a large demographic, but with only five million Millennials—those born between 1980 and 2000—playing golf, the decrease in the number of golfers is dramatic.

Even so, golf course master planned communities still provide an emotional and community need for its residents–a place for connection, commonality, and shared activity. Neighbors have common interests and can spend leisure time playing golf. No one knows this more than my 77-year old Californian aunt and uncle. They absolutely fit the key golfer demographic and play golf two or three times a week, live next to a golf green, and are thoroughly enjoying retirement. It’s their social life and keeps them young—walking the course and swinging the club!

So, if Millennials don’t play golf, what drives them? In a 2013 Aetna, What’s Your Healthy Survey, 24% of the Millennials have a daily commitment to eating and exercising right when compared to only 12% of the Boomer generation. An infographic prepared by Goldman Sachs, surmised that the Millennials “are dedicated to wellness, devoting time and money to exercising and eating right.” Am I born in the wrong generation? As a Baby Boomer, I have a daily commitment to eating well, exercising regularly and I don’t play golf! So, what is an alternative land use that still provides community and open space?  

What’s is a golf course owner to do?

At the time, I was permitting new golf courses, the 18-hole Elk Run Golf Course, owned by Covington Golf, Inc. in Maple Valley, WA was constructed.  Nine holes were built on land leased from King County and nine holes wound their way through the master-planned community. For over 20 years, the golf culture created community and neighborliness. Then as with everything in life, things changed. The Tahoma School District secured Elk Run’s leased nine holes for the site of their new public high school, now scheduled to open in Fall 2017. As owners, Covington Golf, Inc. decided a nine-hole course would not thrive and the last club was swung at Elk Run in 2014.

2016 Garlic Crop at Elk Run Farm

After searching for a new use for their golf course land, the Elk Run owners partnered with the South King County Food Coalition (“SKCFC”) to build a farm to grow produce for local food banks! For clients served by the SKCFC’s 12-member coalition, often freshly-grown, healthy produce is rare. Many food banks lack fresh fruits and vegetables for their clientele, as canned and processed foods and grains are much easier to collect, store, and distribute. Despite King County’s riches, 12.4% of the county’s population live below the poverty level (Employment Security Department). Of the 38 cities in King County, eleven of the cities with the lowest annual incomes are in South King County. The Maple Valley Food Bank, one of the South King County Food Coalition’s (“SKCFC”) 12-members, served 5,356 different individuals and 901,375 pounds of food in 2014-2015. There is an obvious need for fresh produce production for food banks in South King County. SKCFC agreed to sponsor the Elk Run Farm project as a concrete way to educate, nourish, and provide locally-grown produce to this important group of eaters.

Elk Run Farmer—Maria Anderson

Elk Run Farmer Maria Anderson

Maria Anderson came to farming out of a passion for good health which she only began to realize as a young adult. As a 21-year old when she started cooking for herself, she recognized her passion for good food. Through her 20’s, Maria’s understanding of the United States’ food system continued to expand with the ultimate recognition that American society is totally disconnected with where its food comes from. Humans have a regular, daily requirement to eat food. Most in our country (unless they are food insecure) have de facto unlimited food choices. Unfinished restaurant meals are scraped into the garbage or taken home in a little white container for the next day’s meal. Grocery stores are chock full of eating choices whether in the deli, produce section or interior, processed food aisles. For most, food is always there. There is no reason to know, understand or think about how it gets to our mouths.

For Maria, her thoughts on how much food, in what locale, at what scale and where it should be grown continued to pester her. This curiosity about food drove her to intern on several Western Washington farms. Should our country really have more than one-half of its fruits and vegetables grown in California? Could localized vegetable production be expanded locally during a region’s peak growing season? Should food waste have a second purpose rather than the garbage can? Could food scraps be used to feed chickens or pigs or create compost? Are certain crops well-suited for large scale agriculture? Maria keeps developing her answers to these important questions not only by reading and studying, but also by living the life of a farmer.  

Beginning in 2016, Maria, a Millennial, is Elk Run Farm’s farmer growing organic vegetables on the one-acre former grassy field adjacent to the old club house beginning in 2016. Initial funding came via a three-year grant from the Partners to Improve Community Health (“PICH”) through the Center for Disease Control. With any new venture and especially farming, there are numerous start-up costs including equipment, secure storage facilities, irrigation infrastructure, and seed costs. Now in 2017, excitement continues to accelerate for the Elk Run Farm project as funding is secure from the South King County Rotary Clubs, The Bullitt Foundation, Seattle Foundation and the King Conservation District’s Food Systems grant program.

Elk Run Farm Expansion Area?

Goals for this growing season include harvesting 10,000 pounds of produce from the one-acre farm. Yes, it is a small amount compared to the need, but a critical start to feeding an important community. Tomatoes, peppers and eggplant will cover one 5,000 square foot bed (about the same size as a typical City of Seattle single family building lot). Equal sized beds of summer squash, brassicas (broccoli, cauliflower, etc.), legumes (peas and beans), and garlic are expected. One 5,000 square foot bed will be planted in cover crops to nourish the soil and provide forage for bees. The remaining 10,000 square feet will grow lettuce greens and root crops like carrots and radishes.

Maria is optimistic and excited about the future. With a new high school opening right next to door, there are opportunities to teach horticultural classes for young people just steps away. The Urban Agricultural program at Des Moines-based Highline College is expected to assist with farm activities. The neighboring community with former golf course frontage, could be enticed to participate in farming education and eating! The opportunities are endless.

As golf’s popularity continues to wane, are there other chances to convert former golf course grounds to farming? If so, open space is saved and food is grown! We all eat at least three times a day, so it is possible! Is growing food where people live a sustainable new trend, to create more community and build well-being? Could there even be a price premium to live next to the farm or in a farm community? As Millennials form families and hip Baby Boomers age and each is looking for community, will on-site farms be the draw to re-ignite the master planned community?

Kathryn Gardow, P.E., is a local food advocate, land use expert and owner of Gardow Consulting, LLC, an organization dedicated to providing multidisciplinary solutions to building sustainable communities. Kathryn has expertise in project management, planning, farmland conservation, and civil engineering, with an emphasis on creating communities that include food production. Kathryn’s blog muses on ways to create a more sustainable world and good food!

 

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Embrace Change–It is Inevitable–Eat Good Food

Summer is here. Saturday, May 23rd, I bought my first flat of Skagit Valley’s fresh Hayton Farms organic strawberries. I can’t remember ever buying local strawberries this early. Some seasons, I’ve had to wait until the first week of July!

Symphonic Spring

Italian Prune Plum Blossoming in March

Italian Prune Plum Blossoming in March

Typically, April and May were months where Seattleites would be tantalized by our symphonic spring. Unlike my Connecticut upbringing where spring arrived like the 4th of July, quickly and with vigor, the classic maritime spring is punctuated by gorgeous days and temperatures gradually rising often times between what feels like endless days of clouds. Expecting summer imminently, usually when June comes, we are socked in with “June Gloom” or “Juneuary” amid low-hanging clouds until after the 4th of July. Outdoor events are scheduled after July 5th, when magically, the giant weather switch in the sky changes and summer officially begins. Summer lasts about 2-1/2 months until mid-September, with little rain and lots of sunshine! However, contrary to the norm, this year the first week in May week had temperatures over 80 degrees! And now, traipsing into June, temperatures are hovering near 80 again!

Another anomaly this year, ski season was cut short. Not enough snow. If there was snow, it was only above 5,000 feet at Crystal and Stevens ski areas. I ski to get into that meditative zone–just the swish of the ski, the pounding of my heart, and cool wind brushing past my face. My last ski day was in January in the sun, on crunch, avoiding rocks–oh, so loud and not fun!

March 2015 Gas Energy Usage

March 2015 Gas Energy Usage

My February 7th to March 10th Puget Sound Energy gas bill confirmed the bad ski season. The weather is different, changing, and four degrees warmer than the previous winter which significantly reduced my energy consumption and my bill! Daily temperatures have continued to increase and since April, I’ve been sleeping with the window open and the fan on! It has just been too hot! Continuing this trend, according to latest forecasts from the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA) Climate Forecast System surface air temperatures for this Seattle summer (June, July and August) are expected to be two to four degrees Fahrenheit above normal, which would give us on average 80 degree days and 60 degree nights! It sounds divine for growing food, but not for cooling off our city homes. With weather and predictions like this, it is time to plant your tomatoes, as it will not be the “year of the green tomato!” (Oh, and buy a fan, too, before they are sold out!)

March Blooming Hedge Blueberries

March Blooming Hedge Blueberries

Not surprisingly, Governor Inslee on May 15th declared a statewide drought. This past winter, Seattle had normal quantities of precipitation, but it came as rain rather than snow–hence, the bad ski season. The Pacific Northwest is dependent on snow and thus, snowmelt to quench a thirsty populous. Snow typically accumulates in the Cascades and Olympics through the winter, creating a defacto giant frozen reservoir. With warming temperatures and sunny days, melting snow feeds drinking water reservoirs, irrigation channels, and salmon-bearing streams. The statewide snowpack is only nine percent of normal according the Washington State Department of Ecology, and currently predicted to be the lowest on record in the past 64 years. As of May 29th, there is no snowpack in the Olympic Mountains. According to Cliff Mass, Professor of Atmospheric Science at the University of Washington and regular commentator on KUOW-our public radio station, western Washington public water systems are predicted to have enough water due to foresight from operators that filled reservoirs with rainwater during the winter. With sufficient water supply and sunny warm days ahead, if you plant your yard with edibles, anticipate a bountiful harvest.

Rather than pining for the cool summers of past or worrying about the hot summers of the future, embrace NOW with gusto and eat (and perhaps, grow) good food!

Eat Good Food!

Late May Prune Plums

Late May Prune Plums

I am looking forward to a plethora of great food from my yard. My perennials are rhubarb, rosemary, Italian prune plums, thyme, blueberries, strawberries, and Interlaken grapes. Plums, arriving in late August, are a staple for my annual zwetchendatschi–the plum tart of my Bavarian heritage. Any over abundance of plums and grapes are dried into prunes and raisins. Annually, garlic, tomatoes, green beans, basil, snap peas, and Japanese cucumbers flourish in my garden. My tomato starts are chosen based on the fruit not growing beyond two inches round to ensure they ripen. My favorites, Stupice for slicing, San Marzano for salsa, and any grape, cherry, and pear tomatoes for salads. I grow what will thrive! It is a joy to see my good food yard!

Late May Low-Bush Blueberries

Late May Low-Bush Blueberries

Farmer’s markets are my salvation for all those delectables I don’t or can’t grow on a 5,000 square foot city lot. Ever since my cabbage moth infestation, I am dependent on farmers to grow my brassicas–kales, chards, and broccoli. Organic farmers minimize pest problems by having enough land to rotate their crops between different fields every four to 13 years. Bad bugs never have a chance to set up camp and grow big families, since their favorite food group keeps moving fields. A legume planting is also part of the rotation sequence to naturally introduce nitrogen back into the soil. With so little real estate and unwillingness to use pesticides, I just abandon crops when pests invade. I will grow brassicas again when I know the bugs have left for new haunts. Hot weather crops, like melons, high acreage products such as corn, and large fruit trees are virtually impossible to grow on a Seattle city lot and all are purchased from my local farmer.

I could fret about the days that just seem too warm, but instead, I savor yesterday, tend for tomorrow, and eat for today.

Kathryn Gardow, P.E., is a local food advocate, land use expert and owner of Gardow Consulting, LLC, an organization dedicated to providing multidisciplinary solutions to building sustainable communities. Kathryn has expertise in project management, planning, and civil engineering, with an emphasis on creating communities that include food production. Kathryn is a Washington Sustainable Food and Farming Network board member and on the Urban Land Institute–Northwest District Council’s Center for Sustainable Leadership planning team. Kathryn’s blog muses on ways to create a more sustainable world and good food! 

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The Land That Feeds Us: Skagit Valley

The answers are 91, 57, 7, 2, and less than 1.

The questions are:

  1. What is the distance needed between seed crops?
  2. What percentage of the U.S. population are farmers?
  3. What is the average age of U.S. farmers?
  4. What percentage of U.S. production of fruits, nuts, and berries are grown adjacent to urban areas?
  5. What is the rotation cycle for carrots being grown in the same ground?
Bucolic Summer Days in the Skagit with Mt. Baker Looming in the Distance

Bucolic Summer Days in the Skagit with Mt. Baker Looming in the Distance

“Playing with Food: Fun with Farm Facts for All Eaters!” stimulated the conversation for the Urban Land Institute-NW’s Center for Sustainable Leadership cohort on the bus from downtown Seattle to Taylor Shellfish’s operation on the shores of Samish Bay in Skagit County this past October. In a one and a half hour motorcoach ride, the 25 students were transported from city bustle to a county that is passionate about remaining a strong, vibrant farming and food-producing hub.

What does it mean for this part of Puget Sound to be appreciated as a bioregion, with an emphasis on agriculture, was the day’s overriding theme. The link between city folks and country residents was emphasized as essential  to foster, respect, and cultivate. Without our rural counterparts nurturing the soil, growing our sustenance, and bringing it to market, the city would be hungry. Having locally grown and harvested food is a key ingredient to sustaining a resilient community thereby melting the urban–rural divide. Just as cities need food, rural farmers need eaters–a symbiotic relationship is built.

Skagit Valley Farmland: The Resource

Skagitonians to Preserve Farmland was birthed by five farming families in 1989 when a 270-acre theme park was proposed at the intersection of Interstate 5 and Chuckanut Drive in the heart of Skagit farmland. Now 25 years later, Allen Rozema, Executive Director of the non-profit, works to maintain and sustain a viable economic agricultural cluster with four strategic pillars: 1) agricultural economic development, 2) farmland preservation/land use regulation, 3) infrastructure, including 400 miles of drainage ways, 105 tidegates, and farm suppliers and businesses, and 4) education and outreach.

Grains Growing on Protected Farmland in Skagit County

Grains Growing on Protected Farmland in Skagit County

Beginning with a crisis, the organization now drives the work to ensure that the Skagit Valley continues to be an agricultural hub in perpetuity. Currently there are 108,000 acres of land in farm production, of which 98,000 acres are zoned for agricultural use, but less than 10% of the food-producing ground is permanently protected with conservation easements. Despite 90%  of the farm properties being agriculturally zoned, farmland is still highly threatened with non-agricultural uses. Farmland is cheap, flat, and seemingly ready for non-farming purposes. Salmon habitat restoration (80 acres), soccer fields (120 acres), wetland mitigation bank (100 acres), wildlife habitat (100 acres), large lot farm estate (40 acres)–these are just a few of the pressures on farmland. Skagitonians’ mission is to shield all farm ground from conversion to others uses, as it would be a “tragedy of the commons” to the vital resource that feeds us.

One of the reasons large blocks of land is optimal for efficient agricultural production is the biological necessity to rotate crops between different fields and not growing the same crop in the same ground in consecutive years. In my own yard I experience the lack of rotation in my Brassicas (kale, chard, ornamental kales, etc.) which are now aphid infested every season. Granted, I could douse them with pesticides, but because I only have a 5,000 square foot lot, I must instead eliminate kale production. The aphids will not find a home on my lot and leave. The Skagit farmers, on a much larger scale, similarly must rotate their crops—potatoes, corn, grains, strawberries, tulips, seed crops, cover crops, and others—to sustain a viable agricultural system, keeping the soil healthy and reducing the need for excessive use of herbicides and pesticides. An example are grain crops, which are a necessity in rotations because they have deep roots, which help with soil friability and are nitrogen fixing to support future crops.

The Skagit’s top crop—red and white specialty potatoes—requires 36,000 acres or one-third of the entire valley’s farm ground every year to retain an economically, sustainable business. Only 9,000 acres or one-quarter of the “potato acreage” is planted in potatoes each growing season, while the remaining “potato acreage” is rotated among the other crops. There are at least ten different red potato growers in the Skagit. Check where your potatoes come from this holiday season.

Visitors Enjoying Springtime Tulips in Skagit Valley

Visitors Enjoying Springtime Tulips in Skagit Valley

Another major Skagit crop is seed production. Nine out of ten bites of food start from a seed. Without seed, there is no FOOD. The Skagit Valley is where 75% of our country’s spinach seed and 95% of its table beet seed is grown. To breed vigorous, viable seed, two to five miles separation between seed production acreage and 12 to 14 years in field rotation is compulsory. These seed-growing requirements demand extensive crop acreage to ensure a pure product. To ensure crop rotation, Skagit farmers gather yearly in the depths of the winter to “pin” or locate those fields they will plant the next growing season. They don’t necessarily own the land they plant, but trade planting ground to be sure crops are properly rotated, that each farmer has adequate acreage and water supply, and that all growing requirements are met. No attorneys, contracts, or memoranda of understanding are necessary to “pin” the fields. Such a feat flabbergasted the attorneys in the ULI class. All “pin” deals are made on a handshake, compelling all farmers to be good land stewards of their land and when they use their neighbor’s ground.

The Farmers: Vegetable, Livestock, and Seafood

Beginning with an understanding of the rhythm of the land base, a three farmer panel was introduced: Jessica Gigot, PhD, of Harmony Fields, vegetable and herb grower, Linda Neunzig, of Ninety Farms, livestock farmer and Snohomish County Agricultural Coordinator, and Bill Taylor, of Taylor Shellfish Farms, fourth generation seafood producer. Directing their comments to this audience of real estate professionals, each farmer emphasized how important it is to build cities as great places where people want to live there, thereby reducing pressures to convert rural lands.

Bagging Oysters at Taylor Shellfish on the Salish Sea

Bagging Oysters at Taylor Shellfish on the Salish Sea

Having just toured the shellfish farm and feasted on raw oysters, oyster stew and steamed clams and mussels for lunch, Bill emphasized the importance of the superb water quality necessary to sustain Taylor Shellfish’s $60 million family run business which sells seafood products to local and worldwide markets.  Bill expressed concerns on the impacts from climate change which are acidifying and warming the ocean and estuarine waters that provide the food that feeds us. One class participant had an epiphany and linked the importance of his jurisdiction’s wastewater treatment discharge on the health and well-being of his lunch!

Linda stressed the significance of local food production, as an important measure of a region’s sustainability. Can Puget Sound feed itself, if for some reason we were unable to import food from California, Mexico, or Arizona? Typically, Puget Sound grocery stores only have a three-day, non-local, food supply. The dairy system needs hay, to feed the cows, to produce milk. Hay does not have a high profit margin and hayland is highly threatened in Snohomish County. Jessica spoke of her personal choice to go back to the land, to grow food.

The Food Distribution System

Rebuilding a local food system is the effort of Lucy Norris, Director of Marketing of the Northwest Agricultural Business Center. Once upon a time, most food was locally grown with specialty items coming from outside the regional growing area. Cinnamon and coffee are the kinds of food that have always been transported long distances, stored for extended periods, and still be highly usable. Now zucchinis, green beans, tomatoes, and lettuce are available year around being transported from southern climes during the Northwest’s winter months. Living with the food seasonality is no longer a necessity, but is a more sustainable way, by keeping connections to the land, reducing food miles traveled, and protecting our rural landscapes. Re-establishing aggregation or Food Hub facilities and creating local, large-scale and institutional markets are important to Lucy’s success. Bringing in-season blueberries to the University of Washington Medical Center’s breakfast bar was a featured accomplishment–connecting the farmer directly with the food service team.

Playing with Food: The Answers

  1. What is the distance needed between seed crops?

Seed production fields must be separated at a minimum by two miles, but it can be up to five miles separation depending on the crop. Losing farmland to other uses impacts the viability of this important crop, as seeds are a basic building block for food.

  1. What percentage of the U.S. population are farmers?

Despite being founded as an agrarian society, farmers are less than one percent of the U.S. population, with only  45% of those farmers work full-time in the business. Both Linda and Jessica on our famer panel have “day” jobs, too.

  1. What is the average age of U.S. farmers?

The average of a U.S. farmer is 57 years old and one-third of all farmers are 65 years of age or older. As farmers retire, who will grow our food? Younger farmers are entering the profession, but it is a capital intensive business with low profit margins, high costs (land and equipment), and significant uncertainty (weather, pricing, and pest infestations to name a few).

  1. What percentage of U.S. production of fruits, nuts, and berries are grown adjacent to urban areas?

According to American Farmland Trust, ninety-one (91) percent of U.S. fruits, nuts, and berries are grown adjacent to urban areas, which are the most highly threatened lands for conversion to other uses.

  1. What is the rotation cycle for carrots being grown in the same ground?

According to Nash Huber, Nash’s Organic Produce, seven (7) years are needed for a carrot field’s rotation cycle.

The “tragedy of the commons” would be to squander the vital Skagit Valley farmland resource, that is so critically important to providing an essential ingredient to human life—FOOD. Learning more about the local agricultural system creates a deeper appreciation for the importance of our farmers, the land, and the food they grow and the value of real estate professionals developing great cities.

Kathryn Gardow, P.E., is a local food advocate, land use expert and owner of Gardow Consulting, an organization dedicated to providing multidisciplinary solutions to building sustainable communities. Kathryn has expertise in project management, planning, and civil engineering, with an emphasis on creating communities that include food production. Kathryn is a Washington Sustainable Food and Farming Network board member and on ULI-NW’s Center for Sustainable Leadership planning team. Kathryn’s blog muses on ways to create a more sustainable world. Stephen Antupit of CityWorks, Inc. collaborated with Kathryn to create the “Playing with Food” matching game as co-host of this year’s ULI Northwest CSL’s Skagit Bioregion program day. 

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